microbial-a-z-title-colour-shadow

A directory of infamous microbes that BioCote® technology is effective against

Our Microbial A-Z is a guide of everything you need to know about important  microbes – what they are, how to pronounce their names, where you find them, and what kind of reputation they have for causing illness and other negative effects.

BioCote® Antimicrobial Technology has been tested against all of these microbes, and performed successfully to control and reduce their presence on a protected surface.

What does this mean for you as a BioCote® customer?
This guide demonstrates that the BioCote® Technology contained in your product performs across the board against a wide range of microbes – not just bacteria and mould, but also viruses.

It also means that whilst the specific materials tested against each microbe may not be your product, the technology contained within is the same as that contained in yours; allowing you to safely assume that your product would perform in much the same way.

Please remember it is important that any marketing material you release that references BioCote® is approved by the Partner Development Team before it is put into use; this not only forms part of your branding agreement but also ensures your message is market appropriate.

antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
bacteria
mold-fungi

x

CRE Klebsiella

kleb-zee-el-uh

ESBL

producing Escherichia coli

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

VRE

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Patients whose care requires ventilators, urinary catheters, or intravenous catheters.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of CRE strains among clinical isolates has increased. Numbers are typically higher in India.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Urinary tract infections (UTI)
• Respiratory illness
• Pneumonia

INTERESTING FACTS

The number of ESBL cases is steadily increasing. Whilst the numbers vary according to region, they are typically high in the Middle East.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated objects e.g. towels, sheets, clothes,  dressings, surfaces, door handles and floors.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of MRSA strains has shown an increase and decrease in clinical settings and increases in the community.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often found in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Large amounts of use of antibiotics selects for the bacteria and allows it to multiply and cause infection.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

IN A WOUND:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin

IN THE URINARY TRACT:
• Back pain urning sensation and increaed urination

Others symptoms include diarrhoea, weakness, chills, and fever.

INTERESTING FACTS

There has been a dramatic increase of VRE in the United States possibly due to more use of the antibiotic Vancomycin.

CRE Klebsiella

kleb-zee-el-uh

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Patients whose care requires ventilators, urinary catheters, or intravenous catheters.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of CRE strains among clinical isolates has increased. Numbers are typically higher in India.

ESBL

producing Escherichia coli

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Urinary tract infections (UTI)
• Respiratory illness
• Pneumonia

INTERESTING FACTS

The number of ESBL cases is steadily increasing. Whilst the numbers vary according to region, they are typically high in the Middle East.

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated objects e.g. towels, sheets, clothes,  dressings, surfaces, door handles and floors.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of MRSA strains has shown an increase and decrease in clinical settings and increases in the community.

VRE

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often found in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Large amounts of use of antibiotics selects for the bacteria and allows it to multiply and cause infection.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

IN A WOUND:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin

IN THE URINARY TRACT:
• Back pain urning sensation and increaed urination

Others symptoms include diarrhoea, weakness, chills, and fever.

INTERESTING FACTS

There has been a dramatic increase of VRE in the United States possibly due to more use of the antibiotic Vancomycin.

x

Acinetobacter Baumannii

As-sin-ee-toe-bac-ter
bau-mahn-ee-eye

Bacillus subtilis

buh-sil-uh s

Campylobacter

cam-py-lo-back-ter

Chelatococcus asaccharovorans

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil and water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces,such as bedside tables, hand rails, floors.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Pneumonia
• Blood infections
• Wound infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for 80% of all Acinetobacter infections.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil and water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Spore producing microbes, it is a cause of food spoilage.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
INTERESTING FACTS

Bacillus subtilis survive extreme environmental conditions.

Used on plants as a fungicide. They are also used on agricultural seeds, such as vegetable and soybean seeds, as a fungicide.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Raw meat (usually poultry), raw milk.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of undercooked meat or contaminated surfaces, such as cooking utensils, chopping board, work surfaces.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea (often with blood)
• Abdominal pain and cramping
• Fever
• Headache
• Nausea and/or vomiting

Symptoms take 3-6 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Campylobacter is the most common food poisioning bacterium in Britain with around 280,000 cases a year.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Waste water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, contact with surfaces such as hand rails, tables, chairs, door handles.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

Non-infectious, Involved in biodegradation of compounds.

INTERESTING FACTS

Numbers increase with both temperature and richness of nutrients.

Acinetobacter Baumannii

As-sin-ee-toe-bac-ter
bau-mahn-ee-eye

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil and water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces,such as bedside tables, hand rails, floors.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Pneumonia
• Blood infections
• Wound infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for 80% of all Acinetobacter infections.

Bacillus subtilis

buh-sil-uh s

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil and water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Spore producing microbes, it is a cause of food spoilage.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
INTERESTING FACTS

Bacillus subtilis survive extreme environmental conditions.

Used on plants as a fungicide. They are also used on agricultural seeds, such as vegetable and soybean seeds, as a fungicide.

Campylobacter

cam-py-lo-back-ter

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Raw meat (usually poultry), raw milk.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of undercooked meat or contaminated surfaces, such as cooking utensils, chopping board, work surfaces.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea (often with blood)
• Abdominal pain and cramping
• Fever
• Headache
• Nausea and/or vomiting

Symptoms take 3-6 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Campylobacter is the most common food poisioning bacterium in Britain with around 280,000 cases a year.

Chelatococcus asaccharovorans

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Waste water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, contact with surfaces such as hand rails, tables, chairs, door handles.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

Non-infectious, Involved in biodegradation of compounds.

INTERESTING FACTS

Numbers increase with both temperature and richness of nutrients.

Clostridium difficile

klo-strid-ee-uh m dif-i-seel

E. coli & E. coli O157

ee-koh-lahy

Enterobacter aerogenes

en-tuh-roh-bak-ter air-oh-jeen s

Enterococcus faecalis

buh-sil-uh s fay-cal-is

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The human intestines.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces, such as sheets, beds, handrails, wall cladding.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Watery diarrhoea
• Fever
• Loss of appetite
• Nausea and abdominal pain

May also show signs of dehydration.

INTERESTING FACTS

C. difficile bacteria are found in the digestive system of about 1 in every 30 healthy adults and around 2/3 of babies.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Intestines of animals, environments infected with E. coli containing faeces.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food and drink, and contaminated surfaces, such as chopping boards, equipment, kitchen/bathroom sinks.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Vomiting
• Stomach cramps
• High temperature and aching muscles

O157 causes more severe infections. For example, kidney complications.

INTERESTING FACTS

E. coli 0157 causes approximately 100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalisations, and 90 deaths each year in the United States.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, water, dairy products and intestines of animals (including humans).
SPREAD THROUGH:
Hospital settings – equipment, skin to skin contact, beds, table surfaces.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Skin and eye conditions
• Meningitis
• Bacteremia (bacterial blood infection)
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterobacter spp. are commonly found in intensive care units and are responsible for 8.6% of nosocomial infections.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterococci faecalis is isolated from 80-90% of human intestine samples.

Clostridium difficile

klo-strid-ee-uh m dif-i-seel

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The human intestines.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces, such as sheets, beds, handrails, wall cladding.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Watery diarrhoea
• Fever
• Loss of appetite
• Nausea and abdominal pain

May also show signs of dehydration.

INTERESTING FACTS

C. difficile bacteria are found in the digestive system of about 1 in every 30 healthy adults and around 2/3 of babies.

E. coli & E. coli O157

ee-koh-lahy

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Intestines of animals, environments infected with E. coli containing faeces.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food and drink, and contaminated surfaces, such as chopping boards, equipment, kitchen/bathroom sinks.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Vomiting
• Stomach cramps
• High temperature and aching muscles

O157 causes more severe infections. For example, kidney complications.

INTERESTING FACTS

E. coli 0157 causes approximately 100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalisations, and 90 deaths each year in the United States.

Enterobacter aerogenes

en-tuh-roh-bak-ter air-oh-jeen s

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, water, dairy products and intestines of animals (including humans).
SPREAD THROUGH:
Hospital settings – equipment, skin to skin contact, beds, table surfaces.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Skin and eye conditions
• Meningitis
• Bacteremia (bacterial blood infection)
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterobacter spp. are commonly found in intensive care units and are responsible for 8.6% of nosocomial infections.

Enterococcus faecalis

buh-sil-uh s fay-cal-is

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterococci faecalis is isolated from 80-90% of human intestine samples.

Legionella pneumophila

lee-juh-nel-uh

Listeria monocytogenes

li-steer-ee-uh

Methylobacterium mesophilicum

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

soo-dom-uh-nuh s ah-ridge-in-oh-sa

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Water and potting mixes
SPREAD THROUGH:
Inhalation of contaminated aerosols e.g. Water sprays, jets and mist from backsplash from a sink or shower.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Respiratory failure
• Multi-organ failure/ dysfunction (MOD)
• Eventually death
• Legionnaires’ disease, ranging from mild cough to fatal pneumonia (duration 2-10 days)

INTERESTING FACTS

The name “Legionnaires’ disease” came from the outbreak that occurred in 1976 in an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Chilled ready-made food – such as deli soil, animals, refrigerated foods, raw
milk and soft cheeses.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Ingestion of contaminated foods.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Fever
• Stiff neck
• Confusion
• Vomiting and diarrhoea

INTERESTING FACTS

Listeria caused the largest foodbourne illness outbreak in the USA, resulting in 30 deaths and 147 reported illnesses.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soils, on leaves and other parts of plants, tap water in hospitals and sewage.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, such as touch surfaces like bedside tables, door handles and hand rails. Also by exposure – skin to skin contact, hospital equipment, such as beds, bed rails, temperature probes.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Bacteraemia – bacteria in the blood stream
• Central catheter infections
• Peritonitis in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

INTERESTING FACTS

Ability to form biofilms and develop a tolerance to disinfecting agents, high temperatures and drying make this microbe highly relevant.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
faeces, soil, sewage and hospital equipment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Use of contaminated equipment, including catheters.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Serious infection (usually occurs if there is already an underlying disease)
• External otitis – infection of the ear canal
• Endopthalmitis – inflammation of interior of the eye.
• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea

INTERESTING FACTS

Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounts for about 10% of hospital acquired infections.

Legionella pneumophila

lee-juh-nel-uh

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Water and potting mixes
SPREAD THROUGH:
Inhalation of contaminated aerosols e.g. Water sprays, jets and mist from backsplash from a sink or shower.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Respiratory failure
• Multi-organ failure/ dysfunction (MOD)
• Eventually death
• Legionnaires’ disease, ranging from mild cough to fatal pneumonia (duration 2-10 days)

INTERESTING FACTS

The name “Legionnaires’ disease” came from the outbreak that occurred in 1976 in an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

Listeria monocytogenes

li-steer-ee-uh

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Chilled ready-made food – such as deli soil, animals, refrigerated foods, raw
milk and soft cheeses.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Ingestion of contaminated foods.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Fever
• Stiff neck
• Confusion
• Vomiting and diarrhoea

INTERESTING FACTS

Listeria caused the largest foodbourne illness outbreak in the USA, resulting in 30 deaths and 147 reported illnesses.

Methylobacterium mesophilicum

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soils, on leaves and other parts of plants, tap water in hospitals and sewage.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, such as touch surfaces like bedside tables, door handles and hand rails. Also by exposure – skin to skin contact, hospital equipment, such as beds, bed rails, temperature probes.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Bacteraemia – bacteria in the blood stream
• Central catheter infections
• Peritonitis in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

INTERESTING FACTS

Ability to form biofilms and develop a tolerance to disinfecting agents, high temperatures and drying make this microbe highly relevant.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

soo-dom-uh-nuh s ah-ridge-in-oh-sa

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
faeces, soil, sewage and hospital equipment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Use of contaminated equipment, including catheters.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Serious infection (usually occurs if there is already an underlying disease)
• External otitis – infection of the ear canal
• Endopthalmitis – inflammation of interior of the eye.
• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea

INTERESTING FACTS

Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounts for about 10% of hospital acquired infections.

Ralstonia pickettii

Salmonella spp.

sal-muh-nel-uh

Shigella spp.

shi-gel-uh

Sphingomonas paucimobilis

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
moist environments such as soil, rivers and lakes.
SPREAD THROUGH:
contaminated fluids used for patient care.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Respiratory tract infections
• Sepsis
• Wound infections
• Infections of the ear and nose

INTERESTING FACTS

In healthy individuals, infections with Ralstonia spp. are extremely rare – they are more commonly found in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Poultry, pigs and cattle. Reptitles also carry the bacteria.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food or drink, person to person or animal to person.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea
• Abdominal cramps

Symptoms usually last around 4-7 days.

INTERESTING FACTS

The CDC estimates 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths each year in the United States.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human faeces, water from ponds, lakes and untreated pools.
SPREAD THROUGH:
A faecal-oral route, e.g. eating food washed in contaminated water,contaminated surfaces e.g. table tops, kitchen equipment.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Abdominal pain
• Tenesmus

Symptoms take 1-2 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Shigella causes about 500,000 cases of diarrhoea each year in the United States.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
both wet and dry environments.
SPREAD THROUGH:
hospital equipment, humidifiers, water, air, bedside water bottles, sinks and temperature probes.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Leg ulcers
• Peritonitis
• Respiratory infection
• Urinary infection
• Meningitis

INTERESTING FACTS

An unidentified strain of Sphingomonas is held responsible for coral plague – first discovered in 1995, and a study in 2004 found it present in shower curtain biofilms.

Ralstonia pickettii

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
moist environments such as soil, rivers and lakes.
SPREAD THROUGH:
contaminated fluids used for patient care.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Respiratory tract infections
• Sepsis
• Wound infections
• Infections of the ear and nose

INTERESTING FACTS

In healthy individuals, infections with Ralstonia spp. are extremely rare – they are more commonly found in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis.

Salmonella spp.

sal-muh-nel-uh

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Poultry, pigs and cattle. Reptitles also carry the bacteria.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food or drink, person to person or animal to person.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea
• Abdominal cramps

Symptoms usually last around 4-7 days.

INTERESTING FACTS

The CDC estimates 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths each year in the United States.

Shigella spp.

shi-gel-uh

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human faeces, water from ponds, lakes and untreated pools.
SPREAD THROUGH:
A faecal-oral route, e.g. eating food washed in contaminated water,contaminated surfaces e.g. table tops, kitchen equipment.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Abdominal pain
• Tenesmus

Symptoms take 1-2 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Shigella causes about 500,000 cases of diarrhoea each year in the United States.

Sphingomonas paucimobilis

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
both wet and dry environments.
SPREAD THROUGH:
hospital equipment, humidifiers, water, air, bedside water bottles, sinks and temperature probes.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Leg ulcers
• Peritonitis
• Respiratory infection
• Urinary infection
• Meningitis

INTERESTING FACTS

An unidentified strain of Sphingomonas is held responsible for coral plague – first discovered in 1995, and a study in 2004 found it present in shower curtain biofilms.

Staphylococcus aureus

staf-uh-luh-kok-uh s  awr-ee-uh s

Staphylococcus epidermidis

staf-uh-luh-kok-uh s ep-i-dur-mis

Streptococcus faecalis

strep-tuh-kok-uh s fay-cal-is

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated surfaces, such as hospital beds, hand rails, floors wall cladding, bathroom fittings.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Found on the skin of 80-100% of patients with skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, yet the reason is unclear.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Biofilms growing on catheters and intravenous lines.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Part of the normal skin flora, but infections are usually hospital-acquired.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters devices.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

It is the most frequent species isolated from human intestine samples (80-90%).

Staphylococcus aureus

staf-uh-luh-kok-uh s  awr-ee-uh s

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated surfaces, such as hospital beds, hand rails, floors wall cladding, bathroom fittings.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Found on the skin of 80-100% of patients with skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, yet the reason is unclear.

Staphylococcus epidermidis

staf-uh-luh-kok-uh s ep-i-dur-mis

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Biofilms growing on catheters and intravenous lines.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Part of the normal skin flora, but infections are usually hospital-acquired.

Streptococcus faecalis

strep-tuh-kok-uh s fay-cal-is

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters devices.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

It is the most frequent species isolated from human intestine samples (80-90%).

x

Aspergillus niger

as-per-jil-uh s nahy-jer

Candida albicans

kan-di-duh al-bee-cans

Penicillium sp.

pen-uh-sil-ee-uh m

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, indoor and outdoor environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Mould spores in the air.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

Can cause aspergillosis diseases:
• Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
• Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis
• Aspergilloma (fungus ball)
• Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

INTERESTING FACTS

Aspergillus niger is found growing all over the world, and is the third most common species associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The mucoid membranes and on the skin.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact, contaminated equipment like hospital bed.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Thrush
• Fever and chills
• Invasive infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Candida can naturally be present on human skin and in the human gastrointestinal tract, and is usually an opportunistic pathogen in patients with compromised immune systems. In a vegetative state can survive for up to 21 years.

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Common cause of food spoilage by microbial contamination.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Mould spores in the air.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Endocarditis: heart murmur, fever and chills, fatigue
• Mycotic keratitis: eye pain, redness, blurred vision

INTERESTING FACTS

Penicillium sp. is present in the air of both indoor and outdoor environments.

Aspergillus niger

as-per-jil-uh s nahy-jer

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, indoor and outdoor environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Mould spores in the air.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

Can cause aspergillosis diseases:
• Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
• Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis
• Aspergilloma (fungus ball)
• Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

INTERESTING FACTS

Aspergillus niger is found growing all over the world, and is the third most common species associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

Candida albicans

kan-di-duh al-bee-cans

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The mucoid membranes and on the skin.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact, contaminated equipment like hospital bed.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Thrush
• Fever and chills
• Invasive infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Candida can naturally be present on human skin and in the human gastrointestinal tract, and is usually an opportunistic pathogen in patients with compromised immune systems. In a vegetative state can survive for up to 21 years.

Penicillium sp.

pen-uh-sil-ee-uh m

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Common cause of food spoilage by microbial contamination.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Mould spores in the air.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Endocarditis: heart murmur, fever and chills, fatigue
• Mycotic keratitis: eye pain, redness, blurred vision

INTERESTING FACTS

Penicillium sp. is present in the air of both indoor and outdoor environments.

Influenza A H1N1

in-floo-en-zuh

SOURCE OF INFECTION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Influenza virus occurs naturally in various animals and birds.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Coughing and sneezing. Short distance airborne transmission of influenza virus may occur particularly in crowded or enclosed spaces.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

• Fever
• Chills
• Sore throat
• Cough
• Aching muscles

INTERESTING FACTS

The 2009 pandemic caused 17,000 deaths worldwide.