microbial-a-z-title-colour-shadow

A directory of microbes that BioCote® technology is effective against

Our Microbial A-Z is a guide of everything you need to know about the microbes BioCote® technology is effective against.

BioCote® antimicrobial technology has been tested against all of the microbes listed below, and performed successfully to control and reduce their presence on a protected surface.

What does this mean for BioCote® partners?
This overview demonstrates that the BioCote® technology contained in treated product performs against a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, mould, fungi and some enveloped viruses.

It also means that whilst the specific materials tested against each microbe may not reflect your product, the technology used is the same as that integrated into your product. This allows you to safely assume, that your product would perform in much the same way.

For any clients wishing to know more about how to share the BioCote® performance data in their marketing communications, please contact the BioCote® team for claims verification as otherwise claims cannot be supported in the market. This not only forms part of your branding agreement, but it also ensures that all messages are market appropriate.

x

CRE Klebsiella

ESBL

producing Escherichia coli

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

VRE

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Patients whose care requires ventilators, urinary catheters, or intravenous catheters.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of CRE strains among clinical isolates has increased. Numbers are typically higher in India.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Urinary tract infections (UTI)
• Respiratory illness
• Pneumonia

INTERESTING FACTS

The number of ESBL cases is steadily increasing. Whilst the numbers vary according to region, they are typically high in the Middle East.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated objects e.g. towels, sheets, clothes,  dressings, surfaces, door handles and floors.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of MRSA strains has shown an increase and decrease in clinical settings and increases in the community.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often found in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Large amounts of use of antibiotics selects for the bacteria and allows it to multiply and cause infection.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

IN A WOUND:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin

IN THE URINARY TRACT:
• Back pain urning sensation and increaed urination

Others symptoms include diarrhoea, weakness, chills, and fever.

INTERESTING FACTS

There has been a dramatic increase of VRE in the United States possibly due to more use of the antibiotic Vancomycin.

CRE Klebsiella

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Patients whose care requires ventilators, urinary catheters, or intravenous catheters.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of CRE strains among clinical isolates has increased. Numbers are typically higher in India.

ESBL

producing Escherichia coli

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Humans, animals and the environment.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Urinary tract infections (UTI)
• Respiratory illness
• Pneumonia

INTERESTING FACTS

The number of ESBL cases is steadily increasing. Whilst the numbers vary according to region, they are typically high in the Middle East.

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated objects e.g. towels, sheets, clothes,  dressings, surfaces, door handles and floors.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

The frequency of MRSA strains has shown an increase and decrease in clinical settings and increases in the community.

VRE

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often found in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Large amounts of use of antibiotics selects for the bacteria and allows it to multiply and cause infection.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

IN A WOUND:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin

IN THE URINARY TRACT:
• Back pain urning sensation and increaed urination

Others symptoms include diarrhoea, weakness, chills, and fever.

INTERESTING FACTS

There has been a dramatic increase of VRE in the United States possibly due to more use of the antibiotic Vancomycin.

x

Acinetobacter Baumannii

Burkholderia spp.

Campylobacter

Chelatococcus asaccharovorans

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil and water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces,such as bedside tables, hand rails, floors.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Pneumonia
• Blood infections
• Wound infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for 80% of all Acinetobacter infections.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Ccontaminated soil and surface waters
SPREAD THROUGH:
Inhalation of contaminated dust or water droplets, ingestion of contaminated water and contact with contaminated soil, especially through skin abrasions.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS
  • Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)
  • Not known to cause disease in humans (Burkholderia tropica)
INTERESTING FACTS

The only place Burkholderia pseudomallei occur naturally in the United States is Puerto Rico.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Raw meat (usually poultry), raw milk.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of undercooked meat or contaminated surfaces, such as cooking utensils, chopping board, work surfaces.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea (often with blood)
• Abdominal pain and cramping
• Fever
• Headache
• Nausea and/or vomiting

Symptoms take 3-6 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Campylobacter is the most common food poisioning bacterium in Britain with around 280,000 cases a year.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Waste water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, contact with surfaces such as hand rails, tables, chairs, door handles.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

Non-infectious, Involved in biodegradation of compounds.

INTERESTING FACTS

Numbers increase with both temperature and richness of nutrients.

Acinetobacter Baumannii

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil and water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces,such as bedside tables, hand rails, floors.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Pneumonia
• Blood infections
• Wound infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for 80% of all Acinetobacter infections.

Campylobacter

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Raw meat (usually poultry), raw milk.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of undercooked meat or contaminated surfaces, such as cooking utensils, chopping board, work surfaces.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea (often with blood)
• Abdominal pain and cramping
• Fever
• Headache
• Nausea and/or vomiting

Symptoms take 3-6 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Campylobacter is the most common food poisioning bacterium in Britain with around 280,000 cases a year.

Chelatococcus asaccharovorans

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Waste water.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, contact with surfaces such as hand rails, tables, chairs, door handles.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

Non-infectious, Involved in biodegradation of compounds.

INTERESTING FACTS

Numbers increase with both temperature and richness of nutrients.

Clostridium difficile

E. coli & E. coli O157

Enterobacter aerogenes

Enterococcus faecalis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The human intestines.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces, such as sheets, beds, handrails, wall cladding.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Watery diarrhoea
• Fever
• Loss of appetite
• Nausea and abdominal pain

May also show signs of dehydration.

INTERESTING FACTS

C. difficile bacteria are found in the digestive system of about 1 in every 30 healthy adults and around 2/3 of babies.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Intestines of animals, environments infected with E. coli containing faeces.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food and drink, and contaminated surfaces, such as chopping boards, equipment, kitchen/bathroom sinks.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Vomiting
• Stomach cramps
• High temperature and aching muscles

O157 causes more severe infections. For example, kidney complications.

INTERESTING FACTS

E. coli 0157 causes approximately 100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalisations, and 90 deaths each year in the United States.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, water, dairy products and intestines of animals (including humans).
SPREAD THROUGH:
Hospital settings – equipment, skin to skin contact, beds, table surfaces.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Skin and eye conditions
• Meningitis
• Bacteremia (bacterial blood infection)
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterobacter spp. are commonly found in intensive care units and are responsible for 8.6% of nosocomial infections.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterococci faecalis is isolated from 80-90% of human intestine samples.

Clostridium difficile

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The human intestines.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Person to person contact or contaminated surfaces, such as sheets, beds, handrails, wall cladding.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Watery diarrhoea
• Fever
• Loss of appetite
• Nausea and abdominal pain

May also show signs of dehydration.

INTERESTING FACTS

C. difficile bacteria are found in the digestive system of about 1 in every 30 healthy adults and around 2/3 of babies.

E. coli & E. coli O157

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Intestines of animals, environments infected with E. coli containing faeces.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food and drink, and contaminated surfaces, such as chopping boards, equipment, kitchen/bathroom sinks.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Vomiting
• Stomach cramps
• High temperature and aching muscles

O157 causes more severe infections. For example, kidney complications.

INTERESTING FACTS

E. coli 0157 causes approximately 100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalisations, and 90 deaths each year in the United States.

Enterobacter aerogenes

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, water, dairy products and intestines of animals (including humans).
SPREAD THROUGH:
Hospital settings – equipment, skin to skin contact, beds, table surfaces.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Skin and eye conditions
• Meningitis
• Bacteremia (bacterial blood infection)
• Pneumonia
• Urinary tract infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterobacter spp. are commonly found in intensive care units and are responsible for 8.6% of nosocomial infections.

Enterococcus faecalis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also often in the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

Enterococci faecalis is isolated from 80-90% of human intestine samples.

Legionella pneumophila

Listeria monocytogenes

Methylobacterium mesophilicum

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Water and potting mixes
SPREAD THROUGH:
Inhalation of contaminated aerosols e.g. Water sprays, jets and mist from backsplash from a sink or shower.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Respiratory failure
• Multi-organ failure/ dysfunction (MOD)
• Eventually death
• Legionnaires’ disease, ranging from mild cough to fatal pneumonia (duration 2-10 days)

INTERESTING FACTS

The name “Legionnaires’ disease” came from the outbreak that occurred in 1976 in an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Chilled ready-made food – such as deli soil, animals, refrigerated foods, raw
milk and soft cheeses.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Ingestion of contaminated foods.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Fever
• Stiff neck
• Confusion
• Vomiting and diarrhoea

INTERESTING FACTS

Listeria caused the largest foodbourne illness outbreak in the USA, resulting in 30 deaths and 147 reported illnesses.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soils, on leaves and other parts of plants, tap water in hospitals and sewage.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, such as touch surfaces like bedside tables, door handles and hand rails. Also by exposure – skin to skin contact, hospital equipment, such as beds, bed rails, temperature probes.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

Bacteraemia – bacteria in the blood stream
• Central catheter infections
• Peritonitis in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

INTERESTING FACTS

Ability to form biofilms and develop a tolerance to disinfecting agents, high temperatures and drying make this microbe highly relevant.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
faeces, soil, sewage and hospital equipment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Use of contaminated equipment, including catheters.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Serious infection (usually occurs if there is already an underlying disease)
• External otitis – infection of the ear canal
• Endopthalmitis – inflammation of interior of the eye.
• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea

INTERESTING FACTS

Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounts for about 10% of hospital acquired infections.

Legionella pneumophila

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Water and potting mixes
SPREAD THROUGH:
Inhalation of contaminated aerosols e.g. Water sprays, jets and mist from backsplash from a sink or shower.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Respiratory failure
• Multi-organ failure/ dysfunction (MOD)
• Eventually death
• Legionnaires’ disease, ranging from mild cough to fatal pneumonia (duration 2-10 days)

INTERESTING FACTS

The name “Legionnaires’ disease” came from the outbreak that occurred in 1976 in an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

Listeria monocytogenes

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Chilled ready-made food – such as deli soil, animals, refrigerated foods, raw
milk and soft cheeses.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Ingestion of contaminated foods.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Fever
• Stiff neck
• Confusion
• Vomiting and diarrhoea

INTERESTING FACTS

Listeria caused the largest foodbourne illness outbreak in the USA, resulting in 30 deaths and 147 reported illnesses.

Methylobacterium mesophilicum

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soils, on leaves and other parts of plants, tap water in hospitals and sewage.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Environmental contamination, such as touch surfaces like bedside tables, door handles and hand rails. Also by exposure – skin to skin contact, hospital equipment, such as beds, bed rails, temperature probes.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

Bacteraemia – bacteria in the blood stream
• Central catheter infections
• Peritonitis in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

INTERESTING FACTS

Ability to form biofilms and develop a tolerance to disinfecting agents, high temperatures and drying make this microbe highly relevant.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
faeces, soil, sewage and hospital equipment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Use of contaminated equipment, including catheters.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Serious infection (usually occurs if there is already an underlying disease)
• External otitis – infection of the ear canal
• Endopthalmitis – inflammation of interior of the eye.
• Meningitis
• Pneumonia
• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea

INTERESTING FACTS

Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounts for about 10% of hospital acquired infections.

Ralstonia pickettii

Salmonella spp.

Shigella spp.

Sphingomonas paucimobilis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
moist environments such as soil, rivers and lakes.
SPREAD THROUGH:
contaminated fluids used for patient care.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Respiratory tract infections
• Sepsis
• Wound infections
• Infections of the ear and nose

INTERESTING FACTS

In healthy individuals, infections with Ralstonia spp. are extremely rare – they are more commonly found in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Poultry, pigs and cattle. Reptitles also carry the bacteria.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food or drink, person to person or animal to person.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea
• Abdominal cramps

Symptoms usually last around 4-7 days.

INTERESTING FACTS

The CDC estimates 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths each year in the United States.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human faeces, water from ponds, lakes and untreated pools.
SPREAD THROUGH:
A faecal-oral route, e.g. eating food washed in contaminated water,contaminated surfaces e.g. table tops, kitchen equipment.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Abdominal pain
• Tenesmus

Symptoms take 1-2 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Shigella causes about 500,000 cases of diarrhoea each year in the United States.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
both wet and dry environments.
SPREAD THROUGH:
hospital equipment, humidifiers, water, air, bedside water bottles, sinks and temperature probes.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Leg ulcers
• Peritonitis
• Respiratory infection
• Urinary infection
• Meningitis

INTERESTING FACTS

An unidentified strain of Sphingomonas is held responsible for coral plague – first discovered in 1995, and a study in 2004 found it present in shower curtain biofilms.

Ralstonia pickettii

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
moist environments such as soil, rivers and lakes.
SPREAD THROUGH:
contaminated fluids used for patient care.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Respiratory tract infections
• Sepsis
• Wound infections
• Infections of the ear and nose

INTERESTING FACTS

In healthy individuals, infections with Ralstonia spp. are extremely rare – they are more commonly found in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis.

Salmonella spp.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Poultry, pigs and cattle. Reptitles also carry the bacteria.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Consumption of contaminated food or drink, person to person or animal to person.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Nausea
• Abdominal cramps

Symptoms usually last around 4-7 days.

INTERESTING FACTS

The CDC estimates 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths each year in the United States.

Shigella spp.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human faeces, water from ponds, lakes and untreated pools.
SPREAD THROUGH:
A faecal-oral route, e.g. eating food washed in contaminated water,contaminated surfaces e.g. table tops, kitchen equipment.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Diarrhoea
• Fever
• Abdominal pain
• Tenesmus

Symptoms take 1-2 days to develop.

INTERESTING FACTS

Shigella causes about 500,000 cases of diarrhoea each year in the United States.

Sphingomonas paucimobilis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
both wet and dry environments.
SPREAD THROUGH:
hospital equipment, humidifiers, water, air, bedside water bottles, sinks and temperature probes.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Leg ulcers
• Peritonitis
• Respiratory infection
• Urinary infection
• Meningitis

INTERESTING FACTS

An unidentified strain of Sphingomonas is held responsible for coral plague – first discovered in 1995, and a study in 2004 found it present in shower curtain biofilms.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus faecalis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated surfaces, such as hospital beds, hand rails, floors wall cladding, bathroom fittings.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Found on the skin of 80-100% of patients with skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, yet the reason is unclear.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Biofilms growing on catheters and intravenous lines.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Part of the normal skin flora, but infections are usually hospital-acquired.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters devices.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

It is the most frequent species isolated from human intestine samples (80-90%).

Staphylococcus aureus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact and contaminated surfaces, such as hospital beds, hand rails, floors wall cladding, bathroom fittings.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Found on the skin of 80-100% of patients with skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, yet the reason is unclear.

Staphylococcus epidermidis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The skin, nose and throat of colonised individuals.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Biofilms growing on catheters and intravenous lines.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Wound infection
• Skin infection
• Septicaemia
• Endocarditis

INTERESTING FACTS

Part of the normal skin flora, but infections are usually hospital-acquired.

Streptococcus faecalis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Human intestines, female genital tract and is also the environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Intravascular or urinary catheters devices.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

In a wound:
• Red, inflammed and tender skin
In the urinary tract:
• Back pain, burning sensation and increased urination

INTERESTING FACTS

It is the most frequent species isolated from human intestine samples (80-90%).

x

Aspergillus niger

Candida albicans

Candida auris

Penicillium sp.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Soil, indoor and outdoor environment.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Mould spores in the air.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

Can cause aspergillosis diseases:
• Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
• Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis
• Aspergilloma (fungus ball)
• Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

INTERESTING FACTS

Aspergillus niger is found growing all over the world, and is the third most common species associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
The mucoid membranes and on the skin.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Skin-to-skin contact, contaminated equipment like hospital bed.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Thrush
• Fever and chills
• Invasive infections

INTERESTING FACTS

Candida can naturally be present on human skin and in the human gastrointestinal tract, and is usually an opportunistic pathogen in patients with compromised immune systems. In a vegetative state can survive for up to 21 years.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Hospitals and healthcare settings
SPREAD THROUGH:
Shared contact points such as furniture and medical equipment

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS
  • Urinary tract infections (UTI)
  • Pericarditis
  • Candidemia
INTERESTING FACTS

It can survive up to 14 days on plastics

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Common cause of food spoilage by microbial contamination.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Mould spores in the air.

INTERESTING FACTS

Penicillium sp. is present in the air of both indoor and outdoor environments.

INTERESTING FACTS

Penicillium sp. is present in the air of both indoor and outdoor environments.

Aspergillus brasiliensis

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Inhalation of airborne conidia, through contaminated water and nosocomial infections
SPREAD THROUGH:
Breathing in spores. This cannot be spread from person to person contact.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS
  • Aspergillosis
INTERESTING FACTS

Hospital fabrics and plastics may serve as importance source of Aspergillus spp.

Feline coronavirus

Influenza A H1N1

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Felines
SPREAD THROUGH:
The oral–faecal route between felids but is not infectious to other species

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)
INTERESTING FACTS

Stress, or superinfections with feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, respectively, increase the risk for FIP development.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ASSOCIATED WITH:
Influenza virus occurs naturally in various animals and birds.
SPREAD THROUGH:
Coughing and sneezing. Short distance airborne transmission of influenza virus may occur particularly in crowded or enclosed spaces.

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS/SYMPTOMS

• Fever
• Chills
• Sore throat
• Cough
• Aching muscles

INTERESTING FACTS

The 2009 pandemic caused 17,000 deaths worldwide.

*/